Certitude In Islam – A Khutbah

Certainty doesn’t relate to just an isolated, distant notion of asserting the existence of God. This would be akin to agnosticism. Rather, it means to have that realization impact your actions – to have a genuine purpose. Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of the Prophet [not nephew!], says:

قال علي, كرم الله وجهه: لو كشف الغطاء ما ازددت يقينا

“If the veil were to be lifted I would not increase in certitude.”

We should look for inspiration in our daily lives. One easy example to look at are pigeons. Many of us have stood at the corners of 15th and Broad and have seek flocks of pigeons – how many times have we really examined them in detail. I say this as it is similar to Allah’s question in the Qur’ān:

أفلا ينظرون إلى الإبل كيف خلقت

“Do they not look at the camel and how it was created?” [Q: 88:17]

The camel was something so common to the Arabs of the Prophet’s time – they were almost what cars are for us today. They also took sustenance from them. So they were at once familiar with them but somewhat mundane as well. Just like pigeons for us, or anything else in our environments, we should examine them with thought and attention. Through this, we can come to the extraordinary in the ordinary and mundane.

Additionally, some of the greatest signs are within ourselves. The human being is an amazing creation. Let us look to the Heavens and the earth for inspiration and what Allah has to say about them:

سنريهم ءايتِنا في الأفاق و في أنفسهم حتى يتبين لهم أنه الحق
أوَ لم يكفِ بربك أنه على كل شيء شهيد

“And We will show them our signs on the horizon and in themselves until it is clear to them that it is the truth. Is it not sufficient that your Lord is a Witness to everything?” [Q: 41:53]

Certitude helps us to be more connected with the nature of Reality. We all must return to Allah, where we will have a full account of our deeds [the hisāb].

إنهم في مرية من لقاء ربهم – ألا إنه بكل شيء محيط

“Eh? Are they in doubt as to the meeting with their Lord? Does He not encompass all things?” [Q: 41:54]

Certitude is developed not by talk but by action, reflection and experience/tasting [ذوق]. We have to move away from conceiving of an Islam which neither needs maintenance or Allah!

Certitude requires constant upkeep. Many modern Muslims seem to think that in order for Islam to be legitimate, it must be expressed in or through the apparatus of an Islamic state. This could not be more secular! Secular ideologies, at their heart, always seek [implicitly or explicitly] to achieve perfection in this life because there is no chance in the next. For the mu’min, who is secure in his belief [meaning of a/m/n], s/he will have complete certitude w/w/o the state apparatus [going back to Ali’s statement]:

لو كشف الغطاء ما ازددت يقينا

Certitude can never be reached by relying upon one’s deeds however, and in fact can lead to doubt. Ibn ‘Ata Allah, may Allah have mercy on him, counsels us on the detriment of relying solely upon deeds and the pitfalls associated with such a psychology:

من علامة الإعتماد على العمل نقصان الرجاء عند وجود الزلل

“A sign of relying upon one’s handiwork is the absence of hope in the presence of a misstep/mistake.”

This is very common in the modern world where people lose hope because they rely upon their abilities, which are always flawed, and then coupled with a sense of entitlement, abandon hope all together because they did not get what they wanted.

One of the real dangers of not having certitude is the distancing ourselves from the very Real Truth of Lā ilāha illa Allah. If we continue to make God so distant, our character, our behavior will reflect this. Like a child whose parents are never present, they will never fear any chastisment nor have any reservation when commiting harmful actions. Instead, they become bold as brass and arrogant – malicious. Similarly, in the absence of parenting, they will never grow up to become loving people, capable of showing the very same mercy they receive from Allah. Stunted, their development is stunted – emotionally they are either incompetent or dysfunctional.

So we as that Allah make us the people of Certitude.

Certitude is developed in stages and steps. One step is to leave that which does not encourage you to be certain! The Prophet [s] advices us:

من حسن إسلام المرء تركه ما لا يعنيه

“Part of bettering one’s Islam is leaving that which does not concern you.”

By leaving that which is none of our concern, we can avoid things that may lead us into disarray. And with so many things the Prophet [s] left us, the meanings have many subtle layers to reflect upon. I would like to accentuate three aspects of this hadith for our reflection:

  1. The basic idea is as was mentioned: Leave that which does not concern you. But there is also a deeper meaning:
  2. “Leave that which is disquieting to you/making you anxious”. The verb ‘a/n/y [عنى] means to be anxious or unsettled.
  3. “Leave that which does not make you humble”. Ibn Mandhur in his opus, Lisān al-Arab, says: العاني الخاضع. Ibn Mundhir states that ‘ani is akin to humility. He further points to the Qur’ān to bolster his claim:

وعنت الوجوه للحي القيوم – فقد خاب من حمل ظلما

“Faces will be made humble to the Ever-Living, the Ever-Sustaining. Surely the looser is he who is weighed down with wrongdoing.” [Q: 20:111]

Allah continues with:

و من يعمل من الصاحت و هو مؤمن فلا يخاف ظلماً و لا هضما

“And as for the one that works righteous deeds, he is secure [a mu’min], therefore no fear shall he have of being wronged or belittled.” [Q: 20:112]

Ibn Mundhir points to the use of the of the very same word, ‘ana [عنى], where Allah is saying that the faces of those people will be made humble, reenforcing the idea that the word implies multiple meanings: to avoid that which does not concern, does not make anxious, and does not make humble. This is further supported by the Prophet’s statement:

دع ما يريبك إلى ما لا يريتك

“Leave that which leaves you in doubt for that which does not leave you in doubt.”

Yaqin, if it is to be developed, must be carefully germinated, like a seed, so that it may flourish and grow, bear fruit and provide shade. But one does not plant a seed without examining where one is placing it, if its location is conducive to supporting health and growth – it is done with careful planning and avoiding that which will damage or destroy the plant. Similarly, we should follow the advice of the Prophet [s] where he says:

من اتقى الشبهات فقد استبرأ لدينه و عرضه

“The one who protects himself against doubtful matters has ensured his religion and his honor.”

How perfect a system! And again, we see the use of the word taqwa again – where it’s used as that very same self-defense system against Allah punishment.

And the Prophet gives us the other side of not obeying his advice:

و من وقع في الشبهات وقع في الحرام

“And for the one who falls into dubious actions then he falls into the Harām.”

I leave myself and all of us with some final words of advice: As Muslims we must assert the closeness of Allah, reestablish the Sacredness of Allah in our daily lives. Constant and frequent reflection on the Truth of Allah, and ask to have that reflected in our character. The consequence of not doing so is evident: like a child whose parents are never present, they never chastisement – their character becomes arrogant and bold and has no humility. Another aspect is thus: they will never fully develop and grow and live as loving people, capable of showing the very same mercy they are constantly receiving. They are emotionally stunted and spiritually malnourished. They Islam becomes dysfunctional.

We close now with a du’ah from the Prophet Muhammad [s] regarding the condition of the world we live in, asking Allah to protect us from its fitnah, so our souls may have salvation on the Day of Judgment:

اللهم إني أعوذ بك من قلب لا يخشع
و دعاء لا يسمع
و من نفس لا يشبع
و من علم لا ينفع
اللهم إني أعوذ بك من هؤلاء الأربع

“O’ Allah! I seek protection in you from a heart that has no humility,
And from a supplication that is not heard,
And from a soul that cannot be satiated,
And from knowledge that has no benefit.
O’ Allah!, I seek refuge in you from all four of these!


Fallacy of the Self-Made Man

In light of the hero culture we are bred in here in America, I fould Ibn Aṭa’ Allah’s words [may God have mercy on him] to be most inciteful on the fallacy of this myth:

من علامة الاعتماد على العمل نقصان الرجاء عند وجود الزلل

“One of the signs of relying on one’s own agency [vs. relying on God] is the loss of hope in the presence of a tribulation.”

You can read/download an Arabic/English copy of al-Hikam here.