A note on texts and “tradition”:
“When artistic objects are separated from both conditions of origin and operation in experience, a wall is built around them that renders almost opaque their general significance, with which esthetic theory deals. Art is remitted to a separate realm, where it is cut off from that association with the materials and aims of every other form of human effort, undergoing, and achievement.” — John Dewey, from Art As Experience.
A reminder on what this course is about:
إنما يعرف فضل الشيء بثمرته
“The excellence of a thing is known by its fruit.” – Ibn al-Jawzi.
What are desires/Hawa?:
الهوى ميل الطبع إلى ما يلائمه ولا يذّم هذا المقدار إذا كان المطلوب مباحا
“Passions are the inclination of one’s natural character or disposition to whatever pleases it, and should not be vilified in as much as what is being sought is permissible.” – Ibn al-Jawzi.
وإنما يذم الإفراط فيه, فمن أطلق الهوى فلأن الغالب فيه ما لا يحل أو يتأول المباح بإفراطه
“However, that being said, passions should be disparaged when one is excessive in following desires. Things being what they are, when passions are criticized, it is either because the object or action is impermissible, or because people often interpret lawful means to excessive (unlawful) ends.” – Ibn al-Jawzi.
Virtues and Components of the Mind:
واعلم أن النفس منها جزاء عقلي فضيلته الحكمة
“Know that part of your soul possesses the virtue for wisdom.” – Ibn al-Jawzi.
“And likewise possesses the capacity for ignorance.” – Ibn al-Jawzi.
Are you ever amazed at yourself, both in your capacity of good and bad, for intelligence and stupidity, for morality and depravity? Ibn al-Jawzi points to what God has said in Surah al-Shams:
ونفس وما سوها فألهمها فجورها وتقوها قد أفلح من زكها وخاب من دسها
“And (swearing) by the soul, which He made balanced: He inspired its depravity and its morality. The one who succeeds is the one who purifies it and the one who fails is the one who covers it up.” – Qur’an, 91: 7-10.
Interestingly enough, the verb dassa/دسّ can mean to cover up but it can also mean to poison something (دسّ السمّ لفلان).
وجزء غضبي فضيلته الحدة
“Another aspect is anger, of whose virtue is keenness.” – Ibn al-Jawzi.
For “al-hiddah”, we see the meanings of keenness, sharpness, but also of fury and irascibility.
“And its depraved attribute is cowardice.” – Ibn al-Jawzi.
وجزء شهواني فضيلته العفة
“And to that part which is lustful, its virtue is chastity.” – Ibn al-Jawzi.
ورذيلته إطلاق الهوى
“And its depraved attribute is unbridled passion.” – Ibn al-Jawzi.
فالصبر عن الرذائل فضيلة للنفس, بها يحتمل الإنسان الخير والشر
A note on “sabr”:
Sabr is commonly translated as “patience.” And while it certainly includes that component, the verb sa-ba-ra encompasses much more than that. Like many verbs, its meaning is reflective of its circumstance: To tie, to fetter, to shackle; to put up with. It also conveys the meaning to withstand something which you have no power to remove. In the Muslim context, it also means to show and express praise (hamd) and gratitude (shukr) in trials and adversity.
وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَىٰ لَنْ نَصْبِرَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامٍ وَاحِدٍ فَادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنْبِتُ الْأَرْضُ مِنْ بَقْلِهَا
“And when you said, ‘Moses, we will not be tied down to just one kind of food so ask your Lord to supply to us some of what the earth produces – its green vegetables’…” – Qur’an, 2: 61.
أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَالْعَذَابَ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا أَصْبَرَهُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ
“Those are the ones who have sold guidance for misguidance and forgiveness for punishment. How steadfastly they will endure (or shackled to) the Fire!” – Qur’an, 2: 175.
وَلَمَّا بَرَزُوا لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانْصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ
“When they came out against Saul and his troops, they said, ‘Our Lord, pour down steadfastness upon us, and make our feet firm, and help us against this kafir people’.” – Qur’an, 2: 250.
This last verse shows that sabr is something real and not simply an abstract notion, as God is asked to “pour” steadfastsness on to them.
A note on “habituation”:
- Habit – the habits we have and the habits we’d like to form.
- What affects the formation of our habits, in both positive and negative ways? What about the impact of technology?
- “We become habituated to what we have and eventually not so interested, and soon dissatisfied, once again.” Bruno Cayoun, Mindfulness-Integrated CBT.
- Piety can be habituated. Sin can be habituated as well.
- The Willpower Instinct by Kelly McGonigal.
- The Shallows by Nicholas Carr.
- Mindfulness-Integrated CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) by Bruno Cayoun.