Nafs Lawwamah – A Khutbah

God the Exalted, in two short verses, ties the fate of humanity to “a day” and the means to salvation on that day by swearing by them both:

لَا أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ – وَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ

There is, by God’s oath, no doubt as to the truth of the Day of Judgment as well as the kind of soul that will find clemency there. The self-reproaching soul (نفس لوامة). As many commentators have pointed out, the term lawwamah (لوّامة) is an inflection that gives the sense of one who does such an action habitually that it comes to define that person. For example, the word for blacksmith, haddad (حدّاد) is also derived from this same form, giving the meaning that one who works with iron (hadid – حديد) to such an extent that that person becomes defined by that action. Similarly, the nafs lawwamah is that soul which calls itself into account with such frequency that God the Exalted defines that soul by this action and swears by it. Similarly, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, in his Tafsir al-Kabir, explains this term:

أنها هي النفوس الشريفة التي لا تزال تلوم نفسها وإن اجتهدت في الطاعة وعن الحسن

“It (nafs lawwamah) is that noble soul which does not refrain from rebuking itself and thus strives in obedience and doing good.”

Similarly, al-Mahalli and his student, Imam al-Suyuti, may God have mercy on them both, state something similar:

النفس اللوامة التي تلوم نفسها وإن اجتهدت في الإحسان

“The nafs lawwamah is that which criticizes itself and strives for perfection (ihsan).

It should be noted that this form of self-criticism is not criticism for the sake of criticism nor is it to be taken to extreme lengths. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم admonished his Community against inveighing against oneself to extremes:

لاَ يَقُلْ أَحَدُكُمْ خَبُثَتْ نَفْسِي ‏.‏ وَلْيَقُلْ لَقِسَتْ نَفْسِي

“None of you should say, ‘my soul has become evil or tainted’, but rather one should say my soul has become covetous.”Sahih Muslim.

At any rate, we can see a strong connection between the Day of Judgment and the self-criticizing soul. We are warned against taking this to the extreme. And lastly, I leave some words for contemplation, advice, from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم on how we might develop the habit of reproaching ourselves:

الكيسُ منْ دانَ نفسَهُ، و عملَ لمَا بعدَ الموتِ، و العاجزُ منْ أَتْبَعَ نفسَهُ هواهَا، و تمنَّى على اللهِ الأمانيَّ

“The intelligent person is the one who indicts his own soul and works for what comes after death while the imbecile is he that, having fallen under the authority of his passions, asks God for frivolities.”Tirmidhi amongst others.

Listen to the khutbah here.

Summer Reading List 2013

I was asked by several folks at the 2013 APRetreat what I have been and would be reading. These are the books I hope to read over the summer:

[1] Carolyn Steel’s, Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives. [2] The Shallows by Nicholas Carr; [3] John Dewey’s, Art As Experience; [4] John Coltrane and Black America’s Quest for Freedom: Spirituality and the Music by Leonard Brown; [5] The Society of the Spectacle by Guy Debord; [6] John Abramson’s, Overdosed America: The Broken Promise of American Medicine; [7] Technopoly, by Neil Postman; [8] Eat To Live by Joel Fuhrman; [9] Living in the Labyrinth of Technology, by Willem H. Vanderburg; [10] Elizabeth Abbott’s, Sugar; [11] Driven To Distraction by Edward M. Hallowell and John J. Ratey; [12] The Good Food Revolution: Growing Healthy Food, People, and Communities by Will Allen; [13] al-Ittiqan fi ‘Ulum al-Qur’an by al-Suyuti; [14] Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class and Sustainability, edited by Alison Hope Alkon and Julian Agyeman.

Extras

40 American Hadith – Hadith #1

Narrated by Abu Sa’id al-Khudri from Imam al-Suyuti’s al-Jami’ al-Saghir:

من حفظ على أمتي أربعين حديثا من سنتي أدخلته يوم القيامة في شفاعتي

“Whoever preserves forty hadith for my Ummah from my Sunnah, I will intercede for him on the Day of Judgment.”

The American Forty Hadith Project is a new effort to make Muslim scholarship not only available to the American Muslim (and non-Muslim) public, but to also make it speak to their reality. I hope to have this in a book format shortly so in the meantime, enjoy these podcasts:

Hadith #1

سألت عائشة رضي الله عنها ما كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يصنع في بيته؟ قالت كان يكون في مهنة أهله تعني خدمة أهله. فإذا حضرت الصلاة خرج إلى الصلاة

“A’isha, may God be pleased with her, was asked, ‘In what way was the Prophet, may God send peace and blessings upon him, productive in his house?’ She replied, ‘He used to work for his family, meaning, he used to be in the service of his family. When the time for prayer came in, he would leave for prayer.'”

Recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari, #676.

The Heart – A Khutbah at the University of Pennsylvania

The believer and the heart: how it can be influenced. How it should be protected.

Concerns of the Heart: [audio:http://www.marcmanley.com/media/mp3s/khutbahs/2011-12-16-upenn-the-heart.mp3|titles=Concerns of the Heart|artists=Marc Manley]

Protecting one’s heart

  • From without: الحواسّ الخمس
  • From within: suggestive imagination [الخيال]; passions [الشهوة]; anger [الغضب].

Our hearts are troubled by the things we see but we should take comfort in knowing that God is always manifesting His Truth:

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَآ إِلَىٰٓ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَأَخَذْنَٰهُم بِٱلْبَأْسَآءِ وَٱلضَّرَّآءِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَضَرَّعُونَ
فَلَوْلَآ إِذْ جَآءَهُم بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُوا۟ وَلَٰكِن قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ مَا كَانُوا۟ يَعْمَلُونَ
فَلَمَّا نَسُوا۟ مَا ذُكِّرُوا۟ بِهِۦ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَبْوَٰبَ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا فَرِحُوا۟ بِمَآ أُوتُوٓا۟ أَخَذْنَٰهُم بَغْتَةًۭ فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْلِسُونَ

“We sent Messengers to nations before you, and afflicted those nations with hardship and distress so that hopefully they would humble themselves (42). If only they had humbled themselves when Our violent force came upon them! However, their hearts were hard and Shaytan made what they were doing seem attractive to them. (43) When they forgot what they had been reminded of, We opened up for them the doors to everything, until, when they were exulting in what they had been given, We suddenly seized them and at once they were in despair (44).” – Qur’an, 6: 42-44.

Involuntary suggestions: protect yourself from influences.

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: اتق الله حيهما كنت وأتبع السيئة الَحسنةَ تمحها وخالق الناس بخلق حسن – الترمذي

“The Messenger of God said: ‘Keep God in mind wherever you are; follow a bad deed with a good so that it offsets it and treat people with courtesy.’ Al-Tirmidhi”.

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: أكثر ما يدخل الجنة تقوى الله وحسن الخلق

“The Messenger of God said: ‘What allows many to enter paradise is taqwa of God and good character.’ Al-Tirmidhi”.

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: الزنا يوثر الفقر

“The Messenger of God said: ‘Illicit sex begets poverty.’ Al-Suyuti on ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Umar”.

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ما أعز الله بجهل قط ولا أذل بعلم قط ولا نقصت صدقة من مال

“The Messenger of God said: ‘Illicit sex begets poverty.’ Al-Daylami on ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Umar”.

أَلَمْ يَأْنِ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَن تَخْشَعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ لِذِكْرِ ٱللَّهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنَ ٱلْحَقِّ وَلَا يَكُونُوا۟ كَٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ مِن قَبْلُ فَطَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلْأَمَدُ فَقَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌۭ مِّنْهُمْ فَٰسِقُونَ

“Has the time not arrived for the hearts of those who have iman to yield to the remembrance of Allah and to the truth He has sent down, so they are not like those who were given the Book before for whom the time seemed over long so that their hearts became hard? Many of them are deviators.” Qur’an, 57: 16.